LVDVS DOMESTICVS: '03-'04.
Third Experience - Homework 23
§ As his big anniversary day on March 15th approaches, the most Roman of all Latin writers GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR [102-44 ante Chr.] for the first time this year allows us to taste, enjoy and imitate his lean, functional, military Latin in his two big extant works: 'De Bello Gallico' and 'De Bello civili'.
A] (the result of one of Caesar's battles with the powerful Belgic-Gaullc Nervii):
"Maiores natu, quos una cum pueris mulieribusque in aestuaria ac paludes collectos dixeramus, *hac pugna nuntiata*, cum+ victoribus nihil impeditum victis nihil tutum arbitrarentur, omnium qui supererant consensu legatos ad Caesarem miserunt seque ei dediderunt et in commemoranda civitatis calamitate ex sescentis ad tres senatores, ex hominum milibus LX vix ad quingentos, qui arma ferre possent, sese redactos esse dixerunt. Quos Caesar, ut in miseros ac supplices usus misericordia videretur, diligentissime conservavit" [De Bello Gallico II,28].
VOCAB. natus,us-m.=birth. una (cf.DICT.)=together. *hac pugna nuntiata*=ABL.ABSOL. cum+=when-because. supersum,superesse=to be left, to survive. dedo,dedere,dedidi,deditum=to surrender. sescenti,ae,a=600. quingentos=500. supplex,supplicis=suppliant, begging. sese=SE.
- If the verbs are: "colligere=to gather; vincere=to conquer; redigere=to reduce", then what will be the natural force of those verbal forms, even as you learned in the 1st Experience: 'collectos'= ________ 'victis'= ________ 'redactos'= ________ and 'impeditum' [impedire=to block]= ________
- Part of your Latin training is to see on what word in the text that "omnium" in L.3 depends for its meaning-completion: ________
- Point out any SUBJUNC. you find in the text and immediately give the controlling verb on which they depend for their 'consecutio':
- If the 'cum' in L.2, as indicated, means 'when-because', then its verb will sound: ________. If the 'ut' in L.6 introduces a purpose-final clause then its verb is going to sound: ________. If the 'qui' in L.5 is a simple relative pronoun, then its verb is going to sound: ________.
- Give the other "degrees" for the words used by caesar here: 'miseros'= ________ 'diligentissime'= ________
- If the verb is: "commemorare-1:to mention,recall", then the verbal form of that same verb: 'commemorandus,a,um' will have to mean for you now:= ________, and which you see agrees with ________.
- If you take the Latin words: 'hac pugna nuntiata' just according to their natural meaning you will produce a phrase useful later in our treatment of the ABL.ABSOL.:
- What kind of action must you see in that "arbitrarentur? ________ if the idea here were: 'they had thought---they thought before' then what form would Caesar have used in Latin?
- If the verb is: "utor,uti,usus=to use,employ", then give us the participles of the same word and their exact-natural meaning; that verb (cf. DICT.) usually has its object in the ABL. :=
- The "in"+paludes (L.1) must mean: ________ but the "in"+miseros (L.6) is going to have to mean: ________
- From the verb given above: "commemorare-1", list all the possible participles and their natural meaning:
- If you read whole phrases and sentences here according to our system of text analysis, you can get Caesar's history-story perfectly without your usual nonsense and dreaming in honor of Caesar on his anniversary:
- Put together your own short sentence based on the magnanimity of Caesar shown in the last line:
"Caesar himself, seeing (cerno,ere) the women and children of the Nervii having-been-left [relinquo,ere] by the Romans and about-to-flee (fugio,ere,fugi,fugitus) judged (judicare-1) them as needing-to-be salvaged (conservare) not afflicted [conflictare-1] more by war":
B] (Caesar and Pompeius, rivals in the civil war, both struggle for advantage in Greece):
"In occupandis praesidiis magna vi uterque nitebatur: Caesar ut quam angustissime Pompeium contineret, Pompeius ut quam plurimos collis quam maximo circuitu occuparet; crebraque os eam causam proelia fiebant. In his, cum legio Caesaris nona praesidium quoddam occupavisset et munire coepisset, huic loco propinquum et contrarium collem Pompeius occupavit" [De Bello Civili III,45].
VOCAB. nitor,niti,nixus=to strive,press,struggle. praesidium,i-n.=garrison. continere=to hold-in. circuitus,us-m.=circle,circumference. creber,crebra,crebrum=frequent. munire=to fortify. coepi=1 began. angustus,a,um=tight,close.
- What special meaning did we attach to the 'quam' in L.1-2 as used by Caesar?=
- If on a certain list: "uter" meant ________, then "uterque" must mean ________, and what is special about the inflection of those two words?
- If the 'consecutio' in "contineret-occuparet" depends on the verb: ________, then the "occupavisset-coepisset" depend where?
- What kind of action do you see in: 'contineret'+'occuparet' really? [Observe-think!]
- What is the natural meaning for that "occupandis" for you?
- Write out the exact history here respecting the SUBJUN. times! [N.B. 'plurimos'+________]
Third Experience Latin - Fr. Reginald Foster
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