Experience III, Lesson 16: Forming the Subjunctive

Learning how to form the Subjunctive in Latin

Recalling last lesson's Subjunctive Principles, we now will learn to form the subjunctive verb in its 4 different times.
Note: The times do not correspond to the 6 times in the indicative we have learned. We will work backward to move from easier to harder.

Some key for this lesson will be recalling the Verb Endings, Lesson I-2, the 4 principal verb parts from Verbs in the Dictionary, Lesson I-13 and Verb Groups, Lesson I-17.

Time 4 Subjunctive (T.4s)

  • Active: Take the 3rd principal part of the verb, and add the ending "-ssem".
    Then form the other numbers/persons as learned in Lesson I-2.
  • Passive and Deponent: Take the 4th part of the verb, together with "essem".
    Then form the other numbers / persons as above.
  • This applies for all verb groups.

Active
scripsissem
scripsisses
scripsisset
scripsissemus
scripsissetis
scripsissent
Passive / Deponent
factus essem
factus esses
factus esset
facti essemus
facti essetis
facti essent

Time 3 Subjunctive (T.3s)

  • Active: Take the 3rd principal part of the verb, and use the ending "-erim".
    Then form the other numbers/persons as learned in Lesson I-2.
  • Passive and Deponent: Take the 4th part of the verb, together with "sim".
    Then form the other numbers / persons as above.
  • This applies for all verb groups.
N.B.
This means the Time 3 Subjunctive has the same form as the Time 6 indicative.
E.g. si quis dixerit = "if someone will have said" (T.6) or "if someone may have said" (T.3s)

Active
dixerim
dixeris
dixerit
dixerimus
dixeritis
dixerint
Passive / Deponent
recreatus sim
recreatus sis
recreatus sit
recreati simus
recreati sitis
recreati sint

Time 2 Subjunctive (T.2s)

  • Active: Take the active infinitive (2nd part) of the verb, and add "-m"
    Then form the other numbers/persons as learned in Lesson I-2.
  • Passive and Deponent: Take the above active form, and use our Passive Flip - think active, flip passive.
  • This applies for all verb groups.
N.B.
To form the "active" infinitive of a deponent verb is the same as its imperative form.
E.g. largior, iri -> largirer; fateor, fateri -> faterer; loquor, loqui -> loquerer; largior, largiri -> largirer

Active
gubernarem
gubernares
gubernaret
gubernaremus
gubernaretis
gubernarent
Passive / Deponent
loquerer
loquereris
loqueretur
loqueremus
loqueremini
loquerentur

Time 1 Subjunctive (T.1s)

  • Active: will form like imperative Time 1, but with a different vowel for each Verb Groups.
  • Group I = "e"; Group II = "ea"; Group III = "a"; Group IV (ia)
    E.g. Gp. I: canto, cantare -> cantem; Gp. II: teneo, tenere -> teneam; Gp. III: diligo, diligere -> diligam; Gp IV: sentio, sentire -> sentiam
  • Form 1st person singular with an "-m", then form the other numbers/persons as learned in Lesson I-2
  • Passive and Deponent: Take the above active form, and use our Passive Flip - think active, flip passive.
N.B.
In verbs groups III and IV, the 1st person singular will be identical for T.1s and T.3 indicative.
E.g. quid dicam = "what shall I say" (T.3) or "what should I say" (T.1s)

Active
cantem
cantes
cantet
cantemus
cantetis
cantent
Passive / Deponent
canter
canteris
cantetur
cantemur
cantemini
cantentur

Now go on to Homework 13 and Homework 14

"There is still hope for you." - Fr. Foster
Dum spiro, spero - While I breath, I hope

Third Experience Latin - Fr. Reginald Foster

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