Experience III, Lesson 2: Passive Imperative
Learning the passive imperative and imperative of deponent verbs
- Recall how in the Indicative tense we learned both active and passive verb forms.
- In the Imperative (command) tense there are also active and passive forms.
- One may want to review Lesson I-21 on Imperative verbs.
- The passive imperative form will also be used to form the imperative of deponent verbs (from Lesson I-30) but with an active meaning.
- The meaning of the passive imperative (command):
- "A" form (Present Imperative): you are to be ..., ye are to be ...
- "B" form (Future Imperative): you/he/she/it/one/ye/they must be ...
- The "looks" of the passive imperative "A" form:
- The singular tu form is the same as the infinitive of the verb
- The plural vos form is the same as the present passive vos form
- This same form will be used to form the imperative with deponent verbs.
|Grp I Verbs (Are)
|celebro, celerbrare - to celebrate
|Passive||tu celebrare||vos celebramini||you / ye are to be celebrated
|laetor, laetari - to rejoice
|Deponent||tu laetare||vos laetimini||you rejoice, ye rejoice
|Grp II Verbs (Ere)
|terreo, terrere - to terrify
|Passive||tu terrere||vos terremini||you / ye are to be terrified
|fateor, fateri - to admit, confess
|Deponent||tu fatere||vos fatemini||you confess, ye confess
|Grp III Verbs (êre)
|pono, ponere - to put, place
|Passive||tu ponere||vos ponimini||you / ye are to be put
|sequor, sequi - to follow
|Deponent||tu sequere||vos sequimini||you follow, ye follow
|Grp IV Verbs (Ire)
|vestio, vestire - to clothe
|Passive||tu vestire||vos vestimini||you / ye are to be clothed
|largior, largiri - to grant
|Deponent||tu largire||vos largimini||you grant, ye grant
Example: ne terrere = do not be afraid
Examples of Deponent Imperatives that look passive but have active meaning:
- laetamini in Domine = rejoice in the Lord
- sequere me = follow me
- largire nobis Domine - grant to us O Lord
"B" form of the imperative
- Using our passive trick, simply add an r to the end of the "B" form imperative (Lesson I-21) to make it passive.
- tu movetor = you shalt be moved
- id cantator = it must be sung
- litterae scribuntor = the letter must be written
- Why is the plural "litterae" translated as singular?
- Because singular "littera" means a letter of the alphabet, plural "litterae" means a letter you mail (though it could also be plural).
Now go on to Homework 2
Third Experience Latin - Fr. Reginald Foster
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