Learning to form Verb Times 1, 2, and 3 for the passive voice
One must know how to form the first 3 times for the 4 verb groups, presented in Lesson 18
One simply needs to think of the active form, and then 'flip' it to be passive.
Instructions: instead of trying to memorize 24 different endings for each time, just make sure you know how to form the active, then spend no more than 2-3 minutes memorizing how to form the different passive verbs from the active form.
1st person singular (I)
2nd person singular (you)
3rd person singular (he,she,it)
1st person plural (we)
2nd person plural (ye)
3rd person plural (they)
The letter "R" is always the sign of the passive in Latin.
These rules apply for all 3 times, and for all 4 verb groups.
Don't touch / change the vowels, expect for two exceptions (for reasons of pronunciation).
Both exceptions occur in the 'you' form (2nd person singular):
* In Time 3, Groups 1 and 2: the i becomes e
Gp 1, T.3 - active: cantabis -> passive: cantáberis
Gp 2, T.3 - active: movebis -> passive: movéberis
* In Time 1, Group 3, the same: i becomes e
Gp 3, T.1 - active: scribis -> passive: scríberis
or another example: expellis -> passive: expélleris
N.B. this makes it the same as the passive of Time 3, except for the accent!
The true passive verb does not take a direct object (accusative case), but rather the subject form.
e.g. ea dicatur puella doctissima - she is called an educated student; elegar legatus - I shall be elected legate
There is an exception that will be learned later: sometimes 2nd person singular, instead of "-ris" is "re": cantáberis = cantábere
"I think its a sin against humanity to have students memorizing conjugations." - Fr. Foster