Experience III, Lesson 8: Irregularities

Reviewing several irregularities in Latin

Block II Nouns

When we learned Block II Nouns recall than in the masculine and feminine accusative plural form, there was an alternative: using "-is" [long i] instead of "-es". This was especially done from 200 B.C. to 300 A.D. Note that this can be confusing, "turris" (from "turris, turris -f" - a tower) now has four possible meanings: beside subject, genitive and vocative singular, it can be object plural.

There is a rare form where the feminine accusative singular, instead of "-em" is "-im". This is seen in the code of canon law when speaking of the diocese - "in dioecesim".


Block II Adjectives

As above, in the object (accusative) plural, masculine and feminine block II adjectives can end in "-is". This means if one counts, "facilis" (from "facilis, facile") has 9 possible uses!


Passive (and Deponent) Verbs

In Times 1-3, we learned to form the passive using our passive "flip" (Lesson I-25) in which the second person changes from "-s" to "-ris" to become passive. However for poetic reasons (and certain early authors like Cicero) instead of "-ris", "-re" is used.

T.1 moneris = monere - you are reminded; T.2 monebaris = monebare - you were being reminded; T.3 moneberis = monebere - you will be reminded.

This means "monere" has 3 uses: infinitive, passive imperative and present indicative "tu"


Time 4 third person plural

As learned in Lesson I-14 the Time 4 "they" form is "-èrunt". Except for a note that sometimes 3rd person plural will also take "-ère", e.g. dixèrunt = dixère; monuèrunt = monuère. This is actually common and would be used until the 20th century.


Semi-deponent Verbs

There are 7 verbs like: AUDEO, GAUDEO, SOLEO, FIDO (CONFIDO, DIFFIDO) called semi-deponents.
They form normally with both Active & Passive forms in T.1-T.3, but are Deponent in T.4-T.6, having only Passive forms with Active meanings in these times.

GAUDEO, GAUDERE, -, GAVISUS SUM - be glad, rejoice
CONFIDO, CONFIDERE, -, CONFISUS SUM - trust, believe

Now go on to Homework 7

Third Experience Latin - Fr. Reginald Foster

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